At that time…

One century after the French Revolution, France was booming in the scientiic, cultural and artistic ields. This was the golden age of Freud, Zola, Jules Verne and Rodin.

1886

• General Boulanger is appointed Minister of War.
•  Industry  is  carried  by  science,  and  science  stimulated  by industry.
•  Improvements  in means  of  communication  (the  Suez  Canal opened  in 1869) puts China a month away  from Marseille, and Japan less than 40 days away.
• The Impressionists show their work in New York despite never having met with success in France.
• The Americans  inaugurate  the  Statue of “Liberty  that  lit  the world”,  designed  by  sculptor Auguste  Bartholdi  (structure  by Gustave Eiffel).
• At  the  end  of  the  XIXth   century,  fashion  relects  economic and social life. Lavishly attired, the bourgeoisie ills the salons in vogue, the clubs and theatres.
• Sarah Bernhardt plays Marion Delorme.
• Sigmund Freud opens his practice in Vienna.

1887

• Sadi Carnot is elected President of the Republic.
• Building of the new Bourse de Commerce is completed.
• The irst labor exchange opens in Paris.
• The  International Congress of Astronomers decides to make the irst map of the sky.
• André Antoine founds the Free Theatre.
• Gustave Ferrié enters Polytechnique.

1888

• William II becomes Emperor of Germany.
• 11,000 people in France have a telephone.
• Emile Zola completes Les Rougon-Macquart.
•  Jules Verne has been writing  Les Voyages Extraordinaires  for  25 years.

1889

• Banquet of the Mayors of France.
• The decline and end of Le Boulangisme.
• Foundation of the Second International.
• Benjamin Harrison  is elected President of  the United States, and the irst Panamerican Conference is held in Washington.
• Paul Claudel writes Tête d’Or, Alfred  Jarry  embarks on Ubu Roi, Knut Hamsun pens Hunger and Paul Bourget Le disciple.
• Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin in Arles.
• Foundation of the the Nabis group of artists.
• Birth  of Charles  Spencer Chaplin,  known  as Charlie…  and of  Martin  Heidegger, Adolf  Hitler, Abel  Gance,  Jean  Cocteau,   Jean de Lattre de Tasssigny.
• Death of Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly, Philippe de Villiers de l’Isle-Adam and Eugène Chevreul, a French chemist fascinated by the construction of the Eiffel Tower.
• After Les Bourgeois de Calais, Auguste Rodin sculpts The Kiss.
• Birth of René Barthélémy, the pioneer of French television.

Statue of Liberty
Creative Commons License Credit: Phil Guest – 1886: The Americans inaugurate the Statue of “Liberty that lit the world”, designed by sculptor Auguste Bartholdi (structure by Gustave Eiffel).