At that time…

One century after the French Revolution, France was booming in the scientific, cultural and artistic fields. This was the golden age of Freud, Zola, Jules Verne and Rodin.


• General Boulanger is appointed Minister of War.
•  Industry  is  carried  by  science,  and  science  stimulated  by industry.
•  Improvements  in means  of  communication  (the  Suez  Canal opened  in 1869) puts China a month away  from Marseille, and Japan less than 40 days away.
• The Impressionists show their work in New York despite never having met with success in France.
• The Americans  inaugurate  the  Statue of “Liberty  that  lit  the world”,  designed  by  sculptor Auguste  Bartholdi  (structure  by Gustave Eiffel).
• At  the  end  of  the  XIXth   century,  fashion  relects  economic and social life. Lavishly attired, the bourgeoisie ills the salons in vogue, the clubs and theatres.
• Sarah Bernhardt plays Marion Delorme.
• Sigmund Freud opens his practice in Vienna.


• Sadi Carnot is elected President of the Republic.
• Building of the new Bourse de Commerce is completed.
• The irst labor exchange opens in Paris.
• The  International Congress of Astronomers decides to make the irst map of the sky.
• André Antoine founds the Free Theatre.
• Gustave Ferrié enters Polytechnique.


• William II becomes Emperor of Germany.
• 11,000 people in France have a telephone.
• Emile Zola completes Les Rougon-Macquart.
•  Jules Verne has been writing  Les Voyages Extraordinaires  for  25 years.


• Banquet of the Mayors of France.
• The decline and end of Le Boulangisme.
• Foundation of the Second International.
• Benjamin Harrison  is elected President of  the United States, and the irst Panamerican Conference is held in Washington.
• Paul Claudel writes Tête d’Or, Alfred  Jarry  embarks on Ubu Roi, Knut Hamsun pens Hunger and Paul Bourget Le disciple.
• Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin in Arles.
• Foundation of the the Nabis group of artists.
• Birth  of Charles  Spencer Chaplin,  known  as Charlie…  and of  Martin  Heidegger, Adolf  Hitler, Abel  Gance,  Jean  Cocteau,   Jean de Lattre de Tasssigny.
• Death of Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly, Philippe de Villiers de l’Isle-Adam and Eugène Chevreul, a French chemist fascinated by the construction of the Eiffel Tower.
• After Les Bourgeois de Calais, Auguste Rodin sculpts The Kiss.
• Birth of René Barthélémy, the pioneer of French television.

Statue of Liberty
Creative Commons License Credit: Phil Guest – 1886: The Americans inaugurate the Statue of “Liberty that lit the world”, designed by sculptor Auguste Bartholdi (structure by Gustave Eiffel).